Research on NLP / NLPt:
There is a lot of literature about NLP / NLPt on various scientific levels. In the following you will find studies and abstracts about the efficiency and psychotherapeutical effectiveness of NLP / NLPt.
- Doz. Dr. Daniele Kammer of the research centre of the German Association for NLPt,
- Dr. Ilse Groke of the medical library of the University of Vienna and in particular
- Mag. Yvonne Halberstadt-Wasser for the detailed work and the final editorship.
Parts of the results are written in German and the other part is English. As soon as our research pot is filled up accordingly, we will make also the appropriate translation
Research on NLP/NLPt can be viewed under at least two perspectives:
- research that supports the general claims of NLP/NLPt
- research that supports the efficacy of direct practice of psychological/ psychotherapeutic Intervention in clinical settings through delivery of NLP/NLPt therapists.
- (For sociological and political reasons NLP and NLPt are used as synonym, as the label NLPt did only develop since 1994 for practical legal purposes. Before that the NLP-community had no necessity to differentiate, as most applicants did work in the helping professions.)
The following overview on research on NLP/NLPt has been contributed by:
- Richard Bolstad, NLP Trainer, e-mail: email@example.com
- Doz. Dr. Danielle Kammer
- Mag. Martina Genser Medlitsch
- Mag. Yvonne Halberstadt-Wasser
- Univ. Lektor Mag. Peter Schütz
Use Of NLP In Psychotherapy
A study of NLP use in Psychotherapy was organised by Martina Genser-Medlitsch and Peter Schütz in Vienna, Austria in 1996 (published in Genser-Medlitsch, M. & Schütz, P. (2004): /Czy neurolingwistyczna psychotherpia jest efektywna/? In: Nowiny Psychologiczne. Warszawa: Polskie Towarzystwo Psychologiczne). The test sample of 55 therapy clients and the control group of 60 clients on a waiting list were matched by pattern of symptoms, age, family circumstances, education level, therapy experience etc. The test group were seen by members of a group of 37 NLP Master Practitioners (22 men and 15 women) who used a full range of NLP techniques (reframing, setting outcomes, parts work, metamodel, metaphor, trance, time line work, anchoring, belief changes, submodality shifts, strategies, and trauma-phobia process). Clients were assessed with a number of questionnaires before therapy, after therapy, and at 6 month followup. The assessments checked ocurrence of individual discomforts, clinical psychological symptoms, coping strategies used for stress management, locus of control (whether the people felt in control of their lives), and subjective evaluation of the therapy by the client and the therapist.
Diagnoses (ICD9) ranged from schizo-affective and other psychotic disorders, through alcohol dependence, endogenous depressions, psychosomatic disorders, and other issues to post traumatic stress disorders. These disorders were more severe initially in the test group than in the control group on all scales, and their use of psychiatric drugs was higher. On average, treatments lasted 12 sessions (1-48) over a period averaging 20 weeks.
After treatment 1.9% of clients who had had NLP therapy felt no different, 38,9% felt better and 59.3% felt considerably better. None of those treated felt worse. In the control group meanwhile, 47.5% felt no different, 29.5% felt better and 6.6% felt considerably better. 9.8% of the controls felt worse and 4.9% felt considerably worse. At 6 month followup, 52% of clients who had had therapy felt considerably better, 28% felt better, 12% felt there was no change, and 8% felt worse. Meanwhile, the therapists rated 49% of their treatments as having met objectives well, 47% as having somewhat met objectives, and 4% as of little or no success.
After therapy, the clients who received NLP scored higher in their perception of themselves as in control of their lives (with a difference at 10% significance level), reduced their use of drugs, used more successful coping methods to respond to stressful situations, and reduced symptoms such as anxiety, aggression, paranoid thinking, social insecurity, compulsive behaviours, and depression. the research showed that some positive changes also ocurred in the control group and could not be accounted for by the therapy, including some of the reduction in psychosomatic symptoms, social isolation and some paranoid thinking.
Altogether, positive changes in 25 of 33 symptom areas (76%) occurred as a result of the therapy, positive changes in 3 areas occurred in both groups, and no significant changes occured in 5 areas.
Amongst the group who received therapy, there were some interesting differences. On 63.15% of the symptom scales, changes were more pronounced in those under 36 years than those over 35 years old. On 40% of the symptom dimensions, men improved more than women (especially in the areas of feeling more in control of life, and reducing paranoid thoughts, aggression, depression and anxiety). Clients receiving longer durations of therapy (11-48 sessions, as compared to 1-10 sessions) had more gains (especially in relief from compulsive and psychotic behaviours) at the end of therapy, but also accounted for more of the loss of success at the 6 month followup.
The NLP Model Of Sensory System Use And The NLP Spelling Strategy
One of the most important claims made by NLP is that people think in specific sensory languages, and these types of thought can be accessed by changing the direction the subject's eyes look to. The following experiment supports this notion, and it's application to memorising the spelling of words.
F. Loiselle at the University of Moncton in New Brunswick, Canada (1985) selected 44 average spellers, as determined by their pretest on memorising nonsense words. Instructions in the experiment, where the 44 were required to memorise another set of nonsense words, were given on a computer screen.
The 44 were divided into four subgroups for the experiment.
- Group One were told to visualise each word in the test, while looking up to the left.
- Group Two were told to visualise each word while looking down to the right.
- Group Three were told to visualise each word (no reference to eye position).
- Group Four were simply told to study the word in order to learn it.
The results on testing immediately after were that Group One (who did acually look up left more than the others, but took the same amount of time) increased their success in spelling by 25%, Group Two worsened their spelling by 15%, Group Three increased their success by 10%, and Group Four scored the same as previously. This strongly suggests that looking up left (Visual Recall in NLP terms) enhances spelling, and is twice as effective as simply teaching students to picture the words. Furthermore, looking down right (Kinesthetic in NLP terms) damages the ability to visualise the words.Interestingly, in a final test some time later (testing retention), the scores of Group One remained constant, while the scores of the control group, Group Four, plummeted a further 15%, a drop which was consistent with standard learning studies. The resultant difference in memory of the words for these two groups was 61% .
Thomas Malloy at the University of Utah Department of Psychology completed a study with three groups of spellers, again pretested to find average spellers. One group were taught the NLP spelling strategy of looking up and to the left, one group were taught a strategy of sounding out by phonetics and auditory rules, and one were given no new information. In this study the tests involved actual words. Again, the visual recall spellers improved 25%, and had near 100% retention one week later. The group taught the auditory strategies improved 15% but this score dropped 5% in the following week. The control group showed no improvement.
These studies support the NLP Spelling Strategy specifically, and the NLP notion of Eye Accessing Cues, Sensory system use, and Strategies in general.They are reported in:Dilts, R. and Epstein, T., Dynamic Learning, Meta, Capitola, California,1995
The NLP Model Of Association-Dissociation And The NLP Phobia/Trauma Process
Several small scale studies support the success of the NLP Phobia cure, which is based on the NLP model of Dissociation. Here are a collection. In this case the treatment, which takes about 10 minutes, is the standard one taught on NLP Practitioner courses.
- Denholtz M.S., and Mann, E.T., "An automated audiovisual treatment of phobias administered by non-professionals" in the Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry (6, p 111-115), 1975. The first report of the use of the technique, suggesting it may have some merits.
- Allen, K., "An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Neuro Linguistic Programming Procedures in treating Snake Phobias" (in Dissertation Abstracts International 43, 861B), 1982. This study of 36 undergraduate students with snake phobias found the NLP process behaviourally as successful as far longer behaviourist Massed Systemic Desensitisation regimes, and more convincing subjectively to the participants.
- Einspruch, E. "Neurolinguistic Programming in the Treatment of Phobias" in Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 6(1): 91-100, 1988 Findings from this study from the University of Miami Phobia Trauma Clinic suggest that the technique is successful for symptoms of both anxiety and depression in clients with phobias. 31 phobic patients seen in the group/class treatment program completed a phobia questionnaire fear inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory before and after 8 wks of treatment. 17 patients seen in individual therapy completed part of the phobia questionnaire before and after treatment. Results indicate marked improvement by those who were treated. Findings suggest that NLP holds promise for treating phobias.
- Koziey, P., and McLeod, G., "Visual kinesthetic Dissociation in Treatment of Victims of Rape" in Professional Psychology; Research and Practice, 18(3); 276-282,1987 The study, from the University of Alberta, showed the reduction of anxiety in teenage rape victims, and recommends the use of the process in cases of trauma.
The Use Of Submodalities
Many NLP techniques are based on the changing of specific qualities (called submodalities) of the internal pictures, sounds and body responses a subject uses. Research on these was occuring before NLP developed, and is summarised in the back of the book
Gordon, D., Therapeutic Metaphors, Meta, Cupertino, California, 1978
Studies show, for example, that the submodalities in which a client views a placebo (how colourful the pill packaging is, say) will affect the result.
Other studies show that changes in the submodalities in one sensory system will automatically result in changes in the other sensory systems and in emotional changes (so if you change the way your internal picture looks, you'll feel different). As an example, office workers in a room repainted blue will complain of the cold, even though the thermostat is constant, but will stop complaining if it is repainted yellow. These responses are physiological, so that sounds of about 80 decibels produce a 37% decrease in stomach contractions (similar to the result of "fear", and likely to be percieved as such, as the writers of scores for thriller movies know).
These examples come from:
- Buckalew, L.W., and Ross, S. ,"Relationship of Perceptual Characteristics to Efficacy of Placebos" in Psychological Reports 49, p955-961, 1981
- Berry, P. "Effect of Coloured Illumination Upon Percieved Temperature" in Journal of Applied Psychology, 45(4) p248-250
- Smith, E.L. and Laird, D.A., "The Loudness of Auditory Stimuli Which Affect Stomach Contractions In Healthy Human Beings" in Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 2, p94-98, 1930
In orthodox psychological literature, the NLP technique of Anchoring is known as Classical Conditioning, as developed 100 years ago by Ivan Pavlov (who induced dogs to salivate by ringing a bell just before feeding them, and then ringing the bell alone). In one of the earliest studies of classical conditioning, an eleven month old boy (Albert) was introduced to a white rat. Initially, Albert liked the rat and wanted to play with it.
However, each time he reached for it, the experimenter nmade a loud noise behind him, frightening him. After five such noises, Albert had anchored fear to the rat, and panicked whenever he saw it. Having induced this phobia by anchoring, the experimenters were then able to remove it similarly (though this is clearly an ethically dubious study both for Albert and the rat!). Research from p 40 in :
Davison, G.C., and Neale, J.M., Abnormal Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986
Of the hundreds of examples of anchoring principles applied in an innovative way, without the name "Anchoring", one stands out for me. It is Ellen Langer's study of two groups of elderly men (aged 75-80 years), at Harvard University. For 5 days, these two comparable groups of men lived in a closely supervised retreat centre out in the country. One group was engaged in a series of tasks encouraging them to think about the past (to write an autobiography, to discuss the past etc). The other group was engaged in a series of tasks which actually anchored them back into a past time (1959). They wrote an autobiography only up to 1959, describing that time as "now", watched 1959 movies, had 1959 music playing on the "radios", and lived with only the artifacts available in 1951. Before and after the 5 days, both groups were studied on a number of criteria associated with aging. While the first group stayed constant or actually deteriorated on these criteria, the second group dramatically improved on physical health measures such as joint flexibility, vision, and muscle breadth, as well as on IQ tests. They were anchored back to being 50 years old, by the sights and sounds of 1959.
Langer, E.J. Mindfulness, Addison Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1989
The NLP Allergy Process, described below, is an example of a researched NLP technique using this anchoring principle.
The NLP Allergy Process
Here a research base exists outside of NLP. Several studies suggest that allergic responses can be generated (and thus removed) by classical conditioning (which in NLP is called Anchoring). In these studies, an allergy inducing chemical is given to mice, for example, at the same time as a camphor smell is released. In following sessions, the smell of camphor will induce an allergic response. See as an example:
"Pavlovian Conditioning of Rat Mucosal Mast Cells to Secrete Rat Mast Cell Protease II" in Science, 6 January 1989, p83-85
Small studies on the NLP technique itself are also supportive. Dr Judith Swack studied ten people who had a variety of allergies (cats, dust, flowers, cigarette smoke etc). Seven of the ten responded to the ten minute allergy process by become completely response-free. Over two years, the results reduced, as three of the seven regained some allergic response.
Interestingly, of the three who initially got no success with the allergy process, two became allergy free once Swack used other NLP techniques (Time Line Therapy, the Compulsion Blowout and the Trauma Process) with them.
The overall success of NLP in treating allergies may be close to 100%, but the success of the 10 minute process itself, with no other interventions, is initially 70% and on long term followup is 40%.
Swack, J.A., "A Study of Initial Response and Reversion Rates of Subjects Treated With The Allergy technique", in Anchor Point, Vol 6, No2, Feb 1992
Hypnosis And Communication With The Unconscious Mind
The research on the results of Hypnosis in general, and Ericksonian Hypnosis in particular amounts to many volumes. NLP Practitioners have contributed to that research, as for example in the study done by Lynn Timpany (of Transformations NLP Consultants Ltd, New Zealand) into the use of a one session hypnosis treatment for morning sickness and anxiety in 12 women who were pregnant. Of those 12 women, two had sleeping problems which disappeared as a result of the session, five of the eight who were vomiting noticed a significant improvement, and two went from being nauseous virtually 100% of the time to feeling ill less than 20% of the time.
Timpany, L., "A Study of The Effectiveness of Single Session NLP Treatment For Pregnancy Treatment" in Anchor Point, June 1996, p18-19
The literature about hypnosis documents some remarkable successes with it's use in a variety of fields. As a reference, see: Crasilneck, H.B. and Hall, J.A. , Clinical Hypnosis: Principles and Applications, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1985
Studies show that hypnosis can over-ride what would have been considered "incurable congenital conditions". For example, the British Medical Journal in 1952 published a study of a 16 year old boy with congenital ichthyosis erythroderma, whose skin was covered in a horny layer which weeped fluid at the joints. In a week following hypnosis, small areas of the body were clear, and the results spread to the rest of the body over the second week.(above text, p376).
In one of the clearest demonstrations of the ability to communicate with a person's (literally) unconscious mind, D. Cheek induced 3000 fully anaesthetised patients to produce hand movements as signals for "yes" and "no", obviously without their conscious knowledge.
Cheek, D., "Awareness of Meaningful Sounds Under General Anaesthesia." In Theoretical and Clinical aspects of Hypnosis, Symposium Specialists, 1981
Time Line Therapy® And Treatment Of Medical Conditions Such As Asthma
A one year research study (May 1993-May 1994) into the treatment of asthmatics, using NLP, was done in Denmark. Results have already been presented at a number of European conferences, including the Danish Society of Allergology Conference (August 1994), and the European Respiratory Society Conference (Nice, France, October 1994)
The study was run by General Practitioner Jorgen Lund and NLP Master Practitioner Hanne Lund, from Herning, Denmark. Patients were selected from 8 general practices. 30 were included in the NLP Intervention group, and 16 in the control group. All received basic medical care including being supplied with medication. Most had never heard of NLP before, and many were completely unbelieving in it, or terrified of it. Their motivation to do NLP was generally low.The intervention group had an initial day introduction to NLP and Time Line Therapy®, and then 3-36 hours (average 13) of NLP intervention. The NLP focus was not mainly on the asthma; it was on how the people lived their daily lives.
The interventions used were:
- Clear anger, sadness, fear, hurt, guilt and any limiting decisions using T.L.Therapy®
- Use the NLP Trauma cure on the origin of the asthma.
- Use the NLP allergy cure.
The results affected both the peoples general lives, and their asthma. Patients tended to describe their change subjectively as enabling them to be "more open", get "collosal strength and self confidence" "a new life" etc.
The lung capacity of adult asthmatics tends to decrease by 50ml a year average. This occured in the control group. Meanwhile the NLP group increased their lung capacity by an average of 200ml (like reversing four years of damage in a year!). Daily variations in peak flow (an indicator of unstable lung function) began at 30%-40%. In the control group they reduced to 25% but in the NLP group they fell to below 10% . Sleep disorders in the control group began at 70% and dropped to 30%. In the NLP group they began at 50% and dropped to ZERO. Use of asthma inhalers and acute medication in the NLP group fell to near ZERO.
Hanne Lund points out that the implications of this project reach far beyond asthma management. She says "We consider the principles of this integrated work valuable in treatment of patients with any disease, and the next step will be to train medical staff in this model." Hanne Lund can be reached at: NLP Creative Kommunikationa, Bredgade 11, DK 7400 Herning, Denmark
TI: Wie wirksam ist therapeutische Hilfe mit NLP?
AD: Am Fussgraben 26, 65597 Huenfelden-Heringen, Germany
SO: MultiMind - NLP aktuell, 1994, 6, 14-21
AB: Informiert wird im Ueberblick ueber die Grundlagen und Effekte des Neurolinguistischen Programmierens (NLP) in der Psychotherapie. Eingegangen wird dabei besonders auf die Bedeutung der Bezeichnung NLP, die Entstehungs-geschichte, den systematischen Charakter und die Inhalte von NLP sowie die Unterschiede zwischen NLP und anderen Therapieformen. Ausgefuehrt wird ferner, (1) dass NLP Erfolgsstrategien liefert, (2) dass NLP die beste Loesung fuer alle sucht, (3) dass NLP die Selbsthilfekraefte von Menschen belebt, (4) dass NLP Menschen in gute Zustaende fuehrt, (5) dass NLP absolut diskret ist, (6) dass NLP anhand feinster koerpersprachlicher Signale fuehrt, (7) dass NLP die positive Absicht sucht, (8) dass NLP als Kurzzeittherapie haeufig sehr effektiv ist, (9) dass NLP die Vielfalt schaetzt und integrierend wirkt, (10) dass NLP respektvoll und tolerant ist, (11) dass NLP behindernde Konflikte loest, (12) dass NLP Persoenlichkeitsanteile integriert und so Energie freisetzt, (13) dass im NLP 99 Prozent "Verstehen des anderen" und ein Prozent "Intervention" ist sowie (14) dass NLP oft viele positive Nebeneffekte erzielt.
TI: Eine Untersuchung zum Submodalitaetenkonzept des NLP
AD: Hardinghausstr. 25, 4500 Osnabrueck, Germany
SO: MultiMind - NLP aktuell, 1992, 3, 9-12
AB: In einer Pilotstudie wird untersucht, inwieweit die im Submodalitaeten-konzept des Neurolinguistischen Programmierens (NLP) postulierten Veraenderungen der Submodalitaeten (definiert als formal-qualitative Feinunterscheidungen innerhalb jeder Sinnesmodalitaet) von Vorstellungen, die ihrerseits in subjektiv emotionsrelevanten Situationen fester kognitiver Bestandteil sind, emotions-veraendernd wirken koennen. In vier Seminaren wurden 29 Personen in halb-standardisierter Form theoretisch und praktisch in die Eigenanwendungs-moeglichkeiten des Submodalitaetenkonzepts eingefuehrt. Dabei wurden zahlreiche direkte Wirkungen und ein halbes Jahr spaeter deren Dauerhaftigkeit sowie spontan weitergefuehrte Eigenanwendungen von Submodalitaetsveraenderungen abgefragt. Die deskriptive Auswertung ergab bei allen Seminarteilnehmern emotionsrelevante Wirkungen, wobei sich mehr und weniger wirksame Submodalitaeten zeigten. Weiterhin konnten bei knapp zwei Drittel der Teilnehmer verschiedene erfolgreiche Alltagsanwendungen der gelernten Methodik festgestellt werden. Hieraus laesst sich auf die theoretische und praktische Relevanz dieses Teilkonzepts des NLP schliessen.
TI: Erweiterung einschraenkender Glaubenssaetze und Veraenderung von
Verhaltensweisen bei HIV-positiv
IN: University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States; School of Medicine; Department of Psychiatry
SO: MultiMind - NLP aktuell, 1992, 3, 30-36
AB: Ueber den Einsatz von Techniken des Neurolinguistichen Programmierens in der Arbeit mit Personen, die von einer HIV-(Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Infektion betroffen sind, wird berichtet. Dabei wird die Bedeutung imaginativer Techniken bei der Auseinandersetzung mit der Erkrankung (Aufbau einer positiven Zukunftsorientierung, Dissoziation von Identitaet der Person und Virus) und die Notwendigkeit einer Veraenderung einschraenkender Glaubenssaetze (HIV-Infektion als unausweichliches Todesurteil) betont. Dadurch soll der Stressfaktor, den die Tatsache der Infektion auf die Person ausuebt, gemindert werden. Verschiedene Uebungen (Kommunikation zwischen Teilen, Time-Line-Technik, ein gesuenderes Ich schaffen, Staerkung des Willens um Leben) werden schematisch dargestellt.
TI: Arbeit mit einem HIV-Positiven
AD: Gustav-Falke-Str. 2, 20144 Hamburg, Germany
SO: MultiMind - NLP aktuell, 1995, 4, 22-28
AB: Die auf der Grundlage der "Logischen Ebenen" von Robert Dilts und dem daraus entwickelten "Gesundheitsrad" von Janet Konefal durchgefuehrte Psycho-therapie mit einem HIV-(Human immunodeficiency virus-)infizierten Patienten wird beschrieben. Es wird deutlich gemacht, wie die Techniken des Neurolinguistischen Programmierens eingesetzt werden, um mit dem Patienten die in seinen Symptomen enthaltene Botschaft zu erkunden.
TI: Pruefungsangst ...wegankern in nur einer Sitzung?
Eine empirische Untersuchung
AD: Koenigsbergerstr. 3, 72280 Dornstetten, Germany
SO: MultiMind - NLP aktuell, 1994, 6, 22
AB: Die Effektivitaet der Technik des "Anker-Kollabierens" aus dem Neuro-linguistischen Programmieren (NLP) bei der Kurzzeittherapie von Pruefungsangst wird untersucht. Zwoelf Studenten wurden in einer ungefaehr 45minuetigen Sitzung mit NLP-Anker-Kollabieren vorbereitet: Die Problem- und Ressourcephysiologien wurden an den beiden Handgelenken kinaesthetisch geankert und zum kollabieren gebracht. Im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe von 13 Studenten, die sich die Pruefungssituation im Sinne eines mentalen Trainings in allen Repraesentations-systemen vergegenwaertigen sollten, belegen vor und nach dem Training bzw. der Pruefung erhobene Fragebogendaten die Effizienz der Anker-Kollabieren-Technik. Die waehrend des Trainings erfassten Herzratendaten lieferten dagegen wider-spruechliche Befunde.
TI: Using an imaginary scrapbook for neurolinguistic programming in the
aftermath of a clinical depression: a case history.
AU: Hossack-A; Standidge-K
SO: Gerontologist. 1993 Apr; 33(2): 265-8
AB: We employed neurolinguistic programming (NLP) principles to develop a positive self-identity in an elderly male patient in England recovering from clinical depression. This novel technique encouraged recall of intrinsically rewarding past experiences. Each experience was conceptualized in an image and compiled chronologically in an imaginary book, providing continuity to what were chaotic and fragmented recollections during the immediate postdepressive stage. The patient's anxiety and depression were alleviated and his own functional goals largely realized. The scrapbook approach to alleviating depressive symptoms combines NLP principles, sensory modality preference in information processing, guided reminiscence and recall therapy, and the lifebook method.
TI: Neurolinguistic programming as an adjunct to other psychotherapeutic/
SO: Am-J-Clin-Hypn. 1990 Jan; 32(3): 174-82
*LHM: ZBMed-100 Zentralbibliothek für Medizin in Wien, Währinger
Gürtel 18-20 1097 Wien Tel.40400/1085
AB: The therapeutic dissociative techniques of "anchoring" and "three-part dissociation," neurolinguistic programming (NLP) treatment paradigms incorporating the idea of division into ego states, are effective in crisis intervention and as a stimulus for catharsis. Using the anchoring technique in the first session, a 23-yr-old male patient with severe anxiety, manifested by episodes of hyperactivity, was able to superimpose inner resources upon the situations which led to the episodes. Utilizing three-part dissociation, the patient experienced the hyperactive episodes "for the very last time" and terminated them permanently. Hypnotic exploration and ideomotor signaling were used with a 32-yr-old male patient presenting with uncomfortable feelings associated with intense anger. After the origin of the anger was determined, a three-part dissociation produced an abreaction and catharsis. Interaction at a cognitive level integrated the feelings and knowledge into personal consciousness.
TI: A simple hypnotically based NLP technique used with two clients in
criminal justice settings.
IN: Psychological Services Div, Auckland, New Zealand
JN: Australian-Journal-of-Clinical-and-Experimental-Hypnosis; 1995 May, Vol 23(1) 51-57
AB: Much of the language of neurolinguistic programming (NLP) derives from Ericksonian hypnosis and the techniques utilized in both can be successfully integrated to facilitate effective therapeutic change, particularly in cases where clients have poorer verbal and social skills, or are resistant to behavior change in therapy. This paper describes the use of NLP and Ericksonian techniques in hypnosis with clients in the criminal justice system. In Case 1, a 28-yr-old Maori man who was charged with assault on a female became violent and depressed and assaulted and harassed a married woman with whom he had an affair when he realized that she was not taking the relationship seriously. In Case 2, a 30-yr-old part Maori man began to experience panic attacks soon after he was sentenced to prison for aggravated robbery. In both cases, a basic NLP technique, enhanced by hypnotic language patterns, worked effectively to bring about successful outcomes.
TI: Brief treatment for adult children of alcoholics: Accessing resources for self-care.
JN: Psychotherapy; 1989 Win Vol 26(4) 510-513
AB: The case of a 57-yr-old female adult child of an alcoholic (ACA) illustrates that brief treatment may be all that is necessary to help many ACAs who possess the requisites for effective self-care but who have been blocked from using them. The case shows how therapy can find a way around the inhibition of the resource of self-care by mobilizing existing internal resources so that emotional needs can be responded to in the self. In this case, the techniques of accessing resources and anchoring were drawn from neurolinguistic programming.
TI: Neuro-linguistic programming in the treatment of phobias.
AU: Einspruch,-Eric-L.; Forman,-Bruce-D.
IN: U Miami, Phobia & Anxiety Disorders Clinic, FL, US
JN: Psychotherapy-in-Private-Practice; 1988 Vol 6(1) 91-100
AB: Evaluated a program for treating phobias based on R. Bandler and J. Grinder's (1979) neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) and Ericksonian approaches to psychotherapy within the context of a multifaceted treatment program. 31 phobic patients seen in the group/class treatment program completed a phobia questionnaire fear inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory before and after 8 wks of treatment. 17 patients seen in individual therapy completed part of the phobia questionnaire before and after treatment. Results indicate marked improvement by those who were treated. Findings suggest that NLP holds promise for treating phobias.
TI: Sexual abuse of males by females: The problem, treatment modality, and case example.
AU: Shelden,-Virginia-E.; Shelden,-Randall-G.
IN: Behavioral Medicine Assoc, Las Vegas, NV, US
JN: Family-Therapy; 1989 Vol 16(3) 249-258
AB: Reviews literature on the sexual abuse of males by females, focusing on the sexual abuse of a male child by his mother. A treatment model known as neurolinguistic programming (NLP) is described. The primary focus in NLP is outcome. The task of the therapist is to identify behavior in which clients no longer wish to engage and to have clients state in specific positive terms their desired state. NLP, biofeedback, and other methods may be used to expose early sexual abuse as an underlying source of adult dysfunction; this discovery may be used to gain access to a disturbed family system. A case study is presented of a 42-yr-old male patient who was sexually abused by his mother and in which NLP was the treatment of choice.